新东方老师李笑薇:浅谈托福听力中的“问答原则”“欧冠买球网站”
点击量: 发布时间:2021-09-25
本文摘要:由于托福听力考试拒绝的特殊性——与雅思的听力考试有所不同,托福试题无法通过预览听力考题来对听力材料中的最重要内容不作一个预先判断,故而,掌控如何在托福听力材料中定位最重要信息的能力对于托福试题来说变得至关重要。

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由于托福听力考试拒绝的特殊性——与雅思的听力考试有所不同,托福试题无法通过预览听力考题来对听力材料中的最重要内容不作一个预先判断,故而,掌控如何在托福听力材料中定位最重要信息的能力对于托福试题来说变得至关重要。  除了听力中完全“百发百中”的巨变原则外,解说原则也是在听力材料中定位出题信息的一个最重要原则。

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无论是在对话还是讲座当中,解说情境的经常出现一般来说都是对听力材料中牵涉到的最重要问题的具体与深入探讨,对于问题的问往往就是对听力主线内容的更进一步阐述解释,故而一问一答的内容往往就是出题点所在,此部分的信息是试题解题的最重要线索与依据,必须重点注目。  下面将以TPO真题中的明确实例解释解说原则如何需要协助试题在托福听力中定位重点出题信息。  Conversation篇  托福听力中conversation牵涉到的主要是学生求救他人解决问题实际问题或教学内容疑难点的场景,解说原则在对话中的主要反映在于一、具体学生的主要问题---conversation必修的主旨题往往是在学生与教授或工作人员的解说中以求反映,其中:对话的目的主旨往往必要就是学生的问题所在,对话的原文主旨也都是在对话双方的大大接收者中以求说明了的;以及二、探究、解决问题过程中的重要环节与步骤,在对话中基于有所不同问题或困惑的答案往往是牵涉到对话主线的最重要信息,一般来说在听力中会以细节题的形式展开实地考察。  事例1:TPO6Conversation1当中,学生因不具体校园招聘会明确面向什么学生群体而特地前去咨询,此处牵涉到的是对对话目的主旨的实地考察。

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  TPO-6Conversation-1  Narrator  Listentoaconversationbetweenastudentandanemployeeintheuniversity's  careerservicesoffice.  Student  Hi,doyouhaveaminute?  Employee  Sure,howcanIhelpyou?  Student  Ihaveacoupleofquestionsaboutthecareerfairnextweek.  Employee  OK,shoot.  Student  Um...well,areseniorstheonlyoneswhocango?(Q1)Imean,youknow,theyarefinishingschoolthisyearandgettingtheirdegreesandeverything.And,well,itseemslikebusinesseswouldwannatalktothemandnotfirstyearstudentslikeme.  Employee  No,no,thecareerfairisopenedtoallourstudentsandweencourageanyone  who'sinterestedtogocheckitout.  1.Whydoesthestudentgotothecareerservice'soffice?  ●toconfirmthedateandtimeofthecareerfair  ●tolearnthelocationofthecareerfair  ●tofindoutheisallowedtoattendthecareerfair  ●togetadviceaboutinterviewingatthecareerfair  事例2:TPO8Conversation1当中,学生去办理学位证,但因不明白办理的明确拒绝,学生遇上了一些困难。  TPO-8Conversation-1  Stu  Hi,I'dliketodropofmygraduationform;Iunderstandyouneedthisinordertoprocessmydiploma.  Reg  Ok,Iwilltakethat.Beforeyouleave,let'smecheckourcomputer.LookslikeyouareOKforgraduation,andactually,Iamgettingawarningflyonyouracademicrecordhere.  Stu  Really?  Reg  Yeah.Let'sseewaswhat.Areyoufamiliarwithyourgraduationrequirements?(Q2)  Stu  Yes,Ithinkso  Reg  Thenyouknowyouneed48creditsinyourmajorfieldtograduateandatleast24creditsintheintermediatelevelorhigher.Also,afteryoursecondyear,youhavetomeetwithyourdepartmentchairtooutlineaplanfortherestofyourtimehere.(Q2)Inthepast,wealsoissuelettersbeforestudents'finalyearbegantoletthemknowwhattheyneededtotakeinthefinalyeartobeOK,butwedon'tdothatanymore.  Stu  Idefinitelymetwithmychairperson2yearsago;hetoldmethatIneed8morecoursesattheintermediatelevelorhigherinthelast2yearstobeOK.SoIamnotsurewhattheproblemis,ImakesureIgotthesecredits.  2.Accordingtotheregistrar,whatstepiscurrentlytakentoensurethatstudentsfulfilltheirgraduationrequirements?  ●Academicrecordsareregularlycheckedbytheregistrar’soffice  ●Studentsmeetwithadepartmentchairpersontoplantheircoursework  ●Studentsreceiveletterslistingthecoursesthattheystillneedtotake  ●Warninglettersaresenttostudentswhohavefallenbehindintheircoursework  事例3:TPO14Conversation2当中,学生想转新闻专业,老师向其说明学校并没设置新闻专业,且就读于新闻专业并不是要沦为记者的必要条件。  Student:  Yeah…anyway,IamgladyouschedulethismeetingbecauseIwanttochangemy  majortojournalismnow.  Advisor:  Um,theuniversitydoesn'tofferamajorinjournalism.  Student:  Ohno…  Advisor:  But….  Student:  I…Imean…shouldItransfertoanotherschool,ormajorinEnglish?  Advisor:  Er…waitaminute.Letmeexplainwhythemajorisn’toffered.Editorsatnewspapers…editors…um…Imeanwhenyouapplyforareportingjob,editorslookatthetwothings(Q2)——theywanttoseeclips,youknow,someofyourpublishedarticles(Q3),thoughalsowantyoutotryout,thoughgiveyouanassignmentlike…coveringpressconferencesofsomeotherevent,thenseeifyoucancraftthestoryaboutit,accurately,ondeadline(Q3).  3.Accordingtoadvisor,howdonewspapereditorsevaluateanapplicantforareportingposition?  Clickon2answers.  lTheyasktheapplicanttopresentideasfornewsstories.  lTheyasktheapplicanttowriteanewsstory.  lTheyreviewtheapplicant’suniversitycoursework.  lTheyreviewasampleoftheapplicant’spublishedarticles.  Lecture篇  在以答疑解惑为逻辑主线的lecture当中,解说原则的起到变得最为引人注目。

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无论是在辩论型还是台词型的lecture当中,解说情境经常出现的地方往往都是牵涉到课程主题重难点的最重要信息,一般来说是老师针对学生的疑惑展开详尽阐述的情境,因这些最重要的概念与解释往往环绕放学主线进行,故而也都是出题点密集产于的精华部分。  事例1:TPO6Lecture1教授告知学生否告诉郁金香的原产地,在学生问错误之后,最后得出了准确的答案。  TPO-6Lecture-1  Professor  Exactly.Forinstance,doyouhaveanyideawheretulipsarefrom?OriginallyImean.  Student  Well,theNetherlands,right?  Professor  That'swhatmostpeoplethink,butno.TheyarenotnativetotheNetherlands,orevenEurope.TulipsactuallyhailfromanareathatChinesecalltheCelestialMountainsinCentralAsia(Q8).  8.Accordingtotheprofessor,wheredidtulipsoriginate  ●themountainsofcentralAsia  ●theregionaroundIstanbulinTurkey  ●thesandysoilsoftheNetherlands  ●theforestsofnorthernEurope  事例2:TPO6Lecture4学生因对教授的一处推理小说过程有疑,教授在答案学生疑惑的过程中,列出了三个使推理小说正式成立的重要依据。  TPO-6Lecture-4  Student  ButhowisthatprovedthattheSaharausedtobealotwetter?Imeanthepeoplewhopaintedthosehippos,well,couldn'ttheyhaveseenthemontheirtravels?  Professor  Okay,inprincipaltheycould,Karl.Buttherockpaintingsaren'ttheonlyevidence.BeneaththeSaharaarehugeaquifers,basicallyaseaoffreshwater,that'sperhapsamillionyearsoldfilteredthroughrocklayers.And…er…andthenthereisfossilizedpollen,fromlowshrubsandgrassesthatoncegrewintheSahara.Infacttheseplantsstillgrow,er…buthundredsofmilesaway,inmorevegetatedareas.Anyway,it'sthisfossilizedpollenalongwiththeaquifersandtherockpaintings,thesethreethingsareallevidencethattheSaharawasoncemuchgreenerthanitistoday(Q13),thattherewerehipposandprobablyelephantsandgiraffesandsoon.  13.Notlongago,theSaharahadadifferentclimate.Whatevidencedoestheprofessormentiontosupportthis(3)  ●Ancientpollen  ●Bonesfromlargeanimals  ●Rockpaintings  ●AgricultureinancientEgypt  ●Undergroundwater  事例3:TPO15Lecture4教授在课上说明一本看上去憧憬平凡的书在拍卖会上拍出天价的现实原因。

  TPO-15Lecture-3  Professor  Butin1998,abookofprayersfromtheMiddleAges(Q9)soldinanartauctionforalotofmoney,moremoneythananyonewouldpayforadamagedbookfromthe12thcentury.Beautifulornot,why?Ithadbeendiscoveredthatthebookwasapalimpsest,andbeneaththesurfacewritingonthemanualscriptlaid,guesswhat?MathematicaltheoremsanddiagramsfromArchimedes(Q9)  9.。


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